What is a hysteroscopy?

A hysteroscopy is a procedure that allows doctors to look inside the womb (uterus). A hysteroscope, a thin telescope with a light and camera at the end, is used to do the procedure. Your doctor or specialist nurse can look inside your womb thanks to images delivered via a monitor. Because the hysteroscope is delivered into your womb through your vaginal and cervix, no cuts in your skin are required. As a result, a hysteroscopy is a minimally invasive technique.

Hysteroscopy Complications

Uterine perforation — Uterine perforation is the most common complication of hysteroscopy. Uterine perforation can occur during mechanical cervical dilation or insertion of the hysteroscope. Such a perforation may be recognised when an instrument passes beyond the depth of the uterine fundus, when there is a sudden loss of visualisation, when bowel or peritoneal structures can be visualised at the uterine fundus, or when there is a sudden increase in the fluid deficit. Complications of a hysteroscopy can include:

  • Urinary tract or bowel injury — Bowel or bladder injury is rare but may be associated with uterine
  • Cervical laceration — Cervical lacerations can occur, particularly in women with cervical stenosis. Lacerations that are large or are bleeding require sutures.
  • Embolism — Embolism (air or carbon dioxide) can occur with any hysteroscopic technique and cause cardiovascular collapse.
  • Haemorrhage — Potential sources of intraoperative bleeding include operative sites, uterine perforation, and cervical laceration. Bleeding from cervical lacerations that are recognised at surgery can be controlled using operative instruments.
  • Electrosurgical injury — Thermal effects of radiofrequency or laser energy can cause injuries to the uterine cavity and bowel, urinary bladder, and large pelvic vessels.
  • Sepsis - Sepsis generally results from unrecognised thermal bowel injury. Fistulae or urinary ascites can occur from an unrecognised bladder injury. Such complications require consultation with a colorectal surgeon, urologist, or infectious disease specialist.


Treatment options may vary depending on the age of the woman being treated.  Treatment options include:

  • Birth control can address the hormone imbalance and keep menstruation regular
  • Progestin therapy may help regulate menstruation and reduce the risks of endometrial cancer.
  • Hormonal treatments such as anti-oestrogen medication, insulin lowering medication, and Gonadotropins can also be considered.
  • Weight loss can help regulate your menstrual cycle and hormones and reduce your risk of developing diabetes.
1Is there a risk of pregnancy after a hysterectomy?

No, you cannot fall pregnant once you have had a hysterectomy because your uterus (and, in some cases, ovaries and fallopian tubes) have been removed.

2What symptoms indicate that my hysterectomy has gone wrong?

Severe pain and fever after a hysterectomy may indicate that you have developed an infection after your surgery, though this is unlikely.

More commonly, constipation and uterine retention may be experienced after the procedure, but these symptoms should subside as you heal.

3How high is my risk of early menopause after a hysterectomy?

If you have had a hysterectomy, but your ovaries are still intact, you are more likely to go into menopause a few years earlier than normal.